ACTIVE SHARE: The active share is a measurement of the extent to which a portfolio differs from its benchmark index. The ratio of benchmark holdings that differ from fund holdings is calculated. The resulting percentage is the active share.
ALPHA: The alpha represents the difference between the performance of a fund and the performance of its benchmark index. It quantifies the extent to which the fund outperformed or underperformed the benchmark. The alpha measures the portion of the return which can be put down not to mere market performance in general, but to the selection of stocks within the market.
BARBELL STRATEGY: It combines defensive sectors, characterised by structural profitability, a positive competitive environment and high entry barriers, with dividend opportunities for small and medium-sized capitalised as well as up-and-coming dividend stars. The structural admixture of small- and medium-sized companies includes family-run companies in particular. Our "barbell strategy" combines conservative core investments with above-average dividend quality and income-oriented opportunities.
BENCHMARK: A benchmark is a standard for measuring the performance of a fund’s investments. It can be an index that approximates the fund’s investment universe or strategy, a combination of indices or an interest rate.
BETA: The beta gauges the volatility of the security in comparison to the market. By definition, the market beta is 1.0. A beta of less than 1.0 indicates that the security is less volatile than the market. A beta of more than 1.0 indicates that the security is more volatile than the average. A negative beta means that the asset’s return is negatively correlated to the market as a whole.
BOTTOM-UP ANALYSIS: In this approach, the growth potential of individual companies is analysed to identify promising stocks. Then, opportunities are evaluated in the company’s sector and in the market as a whole. Based on these individual analyses, investments are made with the objective of good long-term returns.
BVI METHOD: The BVI method of calculating performance is based on the time-weighted rate of return method. This internationally recognised standard method calculates performance simply, clearly and accurately. The investment performance is the change, in percent, between the assets invested at the beginning of the investment period and their value at the end of the period. It is assumed that distributions are immediately reinvested in new fund shares or units. This ensures that the performance of distributing and accumulating funds can be compared.
COUNTERPARTY RISK: Counterparty risk is the risk of default of a professional market player (in this context, the counterparty is a coordinate term to client). Such risk encompasses traditional credit risk – e.g. in money-market transactions – as well as, in particular, the risks of default inherent in derivatives positions or clearing activities.
COUNTRY AND STOP TRANSFER RISK: Country and stop transfer risk covers all risks of default of or moratorium by a country in which a debtor is legally domiciled. It can arise in the case of cross-border payments due to the unwillingness (political risk) and/or the inability (economic risk) of a country to make such payments, and therefore constitutes a separate, superordinate sphere of risk over which creditor and debtor have no control.
CURRENCY: Collective term for means of payment denominated in foreign currencies (excluding cash), in particular foreign currency bank balances.
DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS: “Derivatives” is a collective term for securities the prices of which are aligned with the price changes or anticipated prices of other investments. Derivatives are constructed in such a way that they disproportionately reflect the fluctuations in the prices of these assets. Therefore, they can be used both to hedge against losses and to speculate on potential price gains of the underlyings. The most important derivatives are structured products, options, futures and swaps.
DIVIDEND YIELD: The dividend on a stock or share last paid out relative to its current price. To a limited degree, the dividend yield indicates the relative attractiveness of a stock. However, it is possible that a dividend yield appears high only because the price of the stock has fallen due to a decline in company performance. In this case, the dividend may be smaller or non-existent in future. For this reason, when investing in dividend-bearing securities, careful analysis of the individual stocks is required.
EQUITY EXPOSURE: Equity exposure refers to the percentage of equity shares within a portfolio.
FLEXIBLE-BLEND APPROACH: The blended approach is a blend of the value and growth approaches. “Flexible” means that the fund is flexible in its selection of small, medium and large-cap companies.
FRONT-END LOAD: The front-end load is a one-off fee charged at the time of purchase of fund shares or units. It is usually expressed as a percentage.
GROWTH APPROACH: In the growth approach, securities are selected on the basis of the promising growth prospects of companies, sectors and markets. Often the selection consists of companies with above-average turnover and earnings growth.
HIGH-YIELD BONDS: Fixed-income securities of poor credit quality. They are generally rated BB+ or lower by rating agencies. They offer higher yields than bonds with better ratings, but also entail higher risks.
INFORMATION RATIO: The information ratio is a financial ratio for evaluating an investment fund that describes the return of a fund above the benchmark, relative to the tracking error. It is obtained by dividing the fund return (measured as alpha) by the fund risk (expressed by the tracking error).
ISSUER RISK: Issuer risk is the risk of declines in the creditworthiness, or of the default, of an issuer or reference entity.
MACD (MOVING AVERAGE CONVERGENCE/DIVERGENCE): The technical indicator is a momentum indicator that is used to predict trends. It is based on two exponential moving averages and the relationship between them (convergence/divergence). The calculation can indicate buy and sell signals.
MAXIMUM DRAWDOWN: The maximum drawdown is the absolute biggest drop in value in a given period of time. It measures how much value the fund lost from peak to trough within a given timeframe. It thus illustrates the fluctuation in value an investor had to take for a specific investment product in the past in a worst-case scenario.
MODIFIED DURATION: The modified duration is an expression of how much the price of a bond or a bond fund will rise or fall due to changes in the market interest rate. The higher the modified duration, the more the prices of the bond fluctuate in response to interest rate changes.
NAV: The Net Asset Value is the value of all the investments in a fund. The NAV per share or unit of an investment fund usually corresponds to the redemption price, unless a redemption fee is charged.
ONE-OFF INVESTMENT: A one-off investment is an investment in fund shares or units made one time only.
PERFORMANCE FEE: This refers to performance-based remuneration. Some funds incur a performance fee if a certain target is exceeded in a set period. R²: R² refers to the percentage of fund movements that can be explained by movements in its benchmark index. Thus, an R² of 35 means that only 35% of fund movements can be explained by changes in its benchmark. R² is used to determine how useful the
beta figure is. The higher the R², the more significant the beta.
RELATIVE STRENGTH INDEX (RSI): RSI is a momentum indicator that tracks prices and can help to identify short-lived highs and lows. To that end, the indicator compares the movements in price over a certain period to determine whether the price is unusually high or low. It is used mainly to identify overbought and oversold securities.
SHARPE RATIO: The Sharpe ratio is the return per unit of risk, and is obtained by dividing the return in excess of the risk-free rate by the standard deviation. It thus indicates the return a fund offers per unit of risk. The higher the Sharpe ratio, the better the risk-adjusted return of a fund.
STANDARD DEVIATION/VOLATILITY: A fund’s standard deviation is a measurement of how much the fund performance fluctuated in the past. The alternative term “volatility” is often used. This indicator is useful for two reasons: firstly, because in most cases, higher volatility means higher risk. This allows for comparison of funds across all categories. Secondly, because funds that tended to be quite volatile in the past also tend to be quite volatile in the future. The standard deviation is thus a useful warning sign.
TER: The Total Expense Ratio includes all fees charged to a fund in the course of a financial year. It is the ratio of costs to average fund assets. However, it is important to note that usually, the TER (the way it is calculated by German fund companies) does not factor in transaction costs, so it is not a “total” expense ratio proper. It takes into account: management and custodian fee, publishing and audit costs, and costs of other services.
TOP-DOWN ANALYSIS: Macroeconomic factors, sectors, countries, market cycles and other such general indicators are looked at first before moving on to more specific, detailed factors like individual companies. Based on this analysis, then, investments are assessed and made with a long-term profit objective.
TRACKING ERROR: A measurement of how closely a fund’s performance tracks that of its benchmark index. It is obtained by calculating the standard deviation in the monthly return between fund and benchmark over a certain period, and using the result to recalculate for one year (annualised). A higher tracking error indicates greater deviation between fund and benchmark composition. A lower tracking error, on the other hand, suggests greater similarity in the structure of fund and benchmark.
UCITS: UCITS stands for Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities. The term comes from an EU Directive setting out the conditions under which funds domiciled in an EU country can be marketed in all EU countries.
VALUE APPROACH: The systematic purchase of company stocks that are comparatively cheap or undervalued and which can be expected to increase in value.
VALUE AT RISK: The specific risk of loss that can arise in trading positions as a result of price changes. It shows the maximum potential for loss in the event of price fluctuations under normal market conditions and within a defined period, calculated on the basis of a certain probability.